Are the author's arguments supported by evidence [e. Sage, ; Sutton, Anthea. Other Sections of Your Literature Review Once you've decided on the organizational method for your literature review, the sections you need to include in the paper should be easy to figure out because they arise from your organizational strategy.
You can also review the indexes of books to find references to specific issues that can serve as the focus of your research.
What theories have been used to explain, predict, or understand their research problem? Sort through other current bibliographies or literature reviews in the field to get a sense of what your discipline expects. Persuasiveness -- which of the author's theses are most convincing or least convincing?
Selection Methods: Recapitulate important features of a research study, but then synthesize it by rephrasing the study's significance and relating it to your own work. Data evaluation -- determining which literature makes a significant contribution to the understanding of the topic.
However, sometimes you may need to add additional sections that are necessary for your study, but do not fit in the organizational strategy of the body. Use Evidence A literature review section is, in this sense, just like any other academic research paper. Methodological Review A review does not always focus on what someone said [findings], but how they came about saying what they say [method of analysis].
Liberty University; Literature Reviews.
How will you further your research as a result of the review? Sources sample cover letter for resume canada your literature review do not clearly relate to the research problem; You do not take sufficient time to define and identify the most relevent sources to use in the literature review related to the research problem; Relies exclusively on secondary analytical sources rather than including relevant primary research studies or data; Uncritically accepts another researcher's findings and interpretations as valid, rather than examining critically all aspects of the research design and analysis; Does not describe the search procedures that were used in identifying the literature to review; Reports isolated statistical results rather than synthesizing them in chi-squared or meta-analytic methods; and, Only includes research that validates assumptions and does not consider contrary findings and alternative interpretations found in the literature.
What sources have they cited to support their conclusions? Writing Your Literature Review Once you've settled on how to organize your literature review, you're ready to write each section.
Clarify If your assignment is not very specific about what form your literature review should take, seek clarification from your professor by asking these questions: Consult with a librarian about identifying research databases in other disciplines; almost every field of study has at least one comprehensive database devoted to indexing its research literature.
Sage Publications, ; Kennedy, Mary M. An overview of the subject, issue, or theory under consideration, along with the objectives of the literature review, Division of works under review into themes or categories [e. Link to article's available through the SCU library and other sources. Locate your own research within the context of existing literature [very important].
Related items that provide additional information but that are not key to understanding the research problem can be included in a list of further readings.
Sage Publications, ; Jesson, Jill. Note however that more authentic thematic reviews tend to break away from chronological order. Is contrary data considered or is certain pertinent information ignored to prove the author's point?
Hart, Chris. Frodeman, Robert. The bibliography or reference section of sources you've already read are also excellent entry points into your own research. Review not just what scholars are saying, but how are they saying it. Roughly how many sources should I include?
You can also use this method to explore what is considered by scholars to be a "hot topic" and what is not. Conducting Research Literature Reviews: Theoretical Review The purpose of this form is to examine the corpus of theory that has accumulated in regard to an issue, concept, theory, phenomena.
Structure and Writing Style I. Identify areas of prior scholarship to prevent duplication of effort.
The annotations are usually short descriptions and a brief critical assessment of each work. Find Models Use the exercise of reviewing the literature to examine how authors in your discipline or area of interest have composed their literature review sections. Guidelines and Examples. Or the review might focus on the fundraising impact of the Internet on a particular political party.
Ways to Organize Your Literature Review Chronology of Events If your review follows the chronological method, you could write about the materials according to when they were published.
For the Internet in American dissertation on corporate governance politics project, one methodological approach would be to look at cultural differences between the portrayal of American presidents on American, British, and French websites.
Consider the following issues before writing the literature review: Sage Publications, Sage, ; Hart, Chris. Use Caution When Paraphrasing When paraphrasing a source that is not your own, be sure to represent the author's information or opinions accurately and in your own words. Typically it focuses on a very specific empirical question, often posed in a cause-and-effect form, such as "To what extent does A contribute to B?
Traditional and Systematic Techniques. If the same thing is being said, just by different people, then this likely demonstrates that the research problem has hit a conceptual dead end.
Some questions to ask: Give a new interpretation of old material or combine new with old interpretations, Trace the intellectual progression of the field, including major debates, Depending on the situation, evaluate the sources and advise the reader on the most pertinent or relevant research, or Usually in the conclusion of a literature review, identify where gaps exist in how a problem has been researched to date.
In what ways might geographers view the need for better distribution of social service agencies in large cities than how social workers might study the issue? This is particularly true in disciplines in medicine and the sciences where research conducted becomes obsolete very quickly as new discoveries are made.
You will not include ALL the information from each study; rather you will use each study to help you advance the necessary definitions, context, explanation and rationalization for variables, gaps, and the argument your paper is making i.
However, note that they can also introduce problems of bias when they are used to make summary claims of the sort found in systematic reviews [see below].
Your goal in this section is to synthesize information from the studies into a meaningful presentation. Releasing the Social Science Research Imagination.
Introduction Your introduction should include some sort of attention-getter, transition to topic, statement of significance of topic, apollo 13 reflection essay sources, a brief description of what your study is all about, and a preview of what will follow in the body of the literature review past research.
Malden, MA: Read them to get a sense of the types of themes you might want to look for in your own research or to identify ways to organize your final review. A summary of available materials without any critical description or component; or An annotated bibliography. Resolve conflicts amongst seemingly contradictory previous studies.
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In composing a literature review, it is important to note that it is often this third layer of knowledge that is cited as "true" even though it often has only a loose relationship to the primary studies and secondary literature reviews.