How to Write Chapter 3 of the Dissertation

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Do how to write chapter in thesis spend too much time on your background and opening remarks before you have gotten started with the main text. The expectations of the reader have been built up through the other chapters, make sure you fulfill these expectations. Conclusions The conclusions relate directly to the research questions or objectives.

The size of this section depends on the number of experiments performed and results expected. For students, this can be a difficult section to write, especially since its purpose may not always be clear. You also do not need to describe the differences between quantitative and qualitative methods, or list all different kinds of validity and reliability. You may, for example: Include a description of the independent variables and dependent variables.

In a qualitative study, a letter of invitation and consent form from all adult participants is included, and a letter of permission from parents if minors are involved. You can also focus on a specific text, thinker or problem. Here you should restate the purpose and add a small overview of a chapter.

How much time and space should you devote to the theory chapter? This is a difficult question. Use discretion: For example, you might present a particular scenario in one way in your introduction, and then return to it in your conclusion from a different — richer or contrasting — perspective. Your research question will be your guide as your writing proceeds. In the remainder of your thesis, this kind of information should be avoided, particularly if it has not been collected systematically.

So, the detailed explanation of each method and point should be documented. How do you know that you have drafted a how to write chapter in thesis question?

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Engaging emotions is not the main point, but a way to elucidate the phenomenon so that the reader understands it in a new and better way. It is recommended to rewrite the introduction one last time when the writing is done, to ensure that it connects well with your conclusion.

Finding out how best to organise and present your findings may take some time. For steps of research proposal in education first time in the dissertation, the researcher can state a personal opinion when the collected data support it. To discuss means to question your findings, and to consider different interpretations.


It should give insights not achievable by ordinary, everyday reflections. In the IMRaD format the theory section is included in the introduction, and the second chapter covers the methods used. Doing so will create false expectations, and suggests that your work is incomplete. Other theories let you develop the various nuances of a phenomenon.

In other words, you investigate a phenomenon from several different perspectives.

Writing the Discussion and Recommendations Chapter of Your Dissertation

A good outline shows how the different parts relate to each other, and is a useful guide for the reader. Method section In a scholarly research article, the section dealing with method is very important. How does your opening paragraph shed light on what is to follow? Discussion Refer to call center business plan ppt hypotheses, objectives, or questions. It should make a good impression and convince the reader why the theme is important and your approach relevant.

Which options became available through your chosen approach? Each recommendation should trace directly to a conclusion. The same applies to an empirical thesis. To analyse means to distinguish between different types of phenomena — similar from different.

They represent the contribution to the knowledge. Studying how to write chapter in thesis is methodologically demanding. Data collection instruments are included. The last paragraph should include a short explanation of data analysis. Exercise Write three different opening paragraphs for your thesis using different literary devices For example: Thus, if you are performing a qualitative study, there are no independent and dependent variables.

Some institutions require a vita at the end.

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Every name and year in the body of the text should be repeated in the list of references with no exceptions. Major Findings Summarize the Chapter 4: On the one hand … and on the other … However … … it could also be argued that … … another possible explanation may be … 6.

References These will follow the specific format of an individual style guide, such as APA, Chicago, or other. What is considered a relevant background depends on your field and its traditions.

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How do you know that you have actually investigated what you intended to investigate? The nature of your research should decide: New York: If you have received any grants or research residencies, you should also acknowledge these. If so, why? How to write papers that get cited and proposals that get funded. An elegant way to structure the text is to use the same textual figure or case in the beginning as well as in the end.

Although the organising principles described here are most clearly relevant for empirical theses, much of the advice is also relevant for theoretical work. Summary and foreword Most readers will turn first to the summary or abstract.

Feel free to pose partially open questions that allow discussions of the overall theme, e. Observe to what extent these different openings inspire you, and choose the approach most appropriate to your topic. Therefore, you should not present theoretical perspectives that taz essay not being put to use.

Others will open up for discussions and different interpretations. This way, the method section is not only able to tie the different parts of your thesis together, it also becomes interesting to read!

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This kind of approach should be defended by comparing with other methods and denying those that do not meet the needs of your study. Most importantly, a research question is something that can be answered. These are the major generalizations, the answer to the problem s revealed in Chapters 1 and 2. It is nevertheless a good idea to work on a draft continuously.

Narrowing the scope of your thesis can be time-consuming. Briefly discuss your results through a different perspective. The research question can be formulated as one main question with a few more specific sub-questions or in the form of a hypothesis that will be tested.

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Please note that the formal requirements vary between different disciplines, and make sure to confer the guidelines that apply in your field. But it is also important to have read enough theory to know what to look for when collecting data.

The main aim of this section is to convince the reader that the chosen approach and research design is maximum appropriate for the desired results.

Structuring a thesis

Make sure that colleges with homework allocate hesi case study pyloric stenosis time and space for a good discussion. For example, if you have carried out interviews, you do not need to list all the different types of research interview.

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If not, you have probably come up with a theme or field, not a question. The research design should establish a strong sequence of the events in a research process.

Writing the Methodology Chapter of a Qualitative Study by Philip Adu, Ph.D.

If you are working independently, you are also free to modify it as you go along. Check and put some subjects to help you construct an effective methodology chapter. The exercise can be done in small groups or pairs. Include sufficient details to suggest some recommendations about the answers to the core research questions.

Importantly, by distinguishing between different phenomena, your theory is put to work. Our consultants can assist students to find the meaning of the information they have collected and to present it in a manner than can be defended. Even so, it should be no longer than necessary. Paradoxically, the more you limit the scope, the more interesting it becomes. What you must do is to show how your choice of design and research method is suited to answering your research question s.

Show the reader what you have done in your study, and explain why. This is the hardest part to write because committees may challenge the interpretation of the data in the Defense.

How important is the historical background? In other words, you have a choice of either reducing the complexity of your data or expanding upon something that initially looks simple.

Writing Chapter 3 of Your Dissertation: Methodology Recommended reading: Please note that the formal requirements vary between different disciplines, and make sure to confer the guidelines that apply in your field.

Placing your thesis in perspective In the final section you should place your work in a wider, academic perspective and determine any unresolved questions. Here you should specify if the research is experimental, quasi-experimental, causal-comparative, correlational, qualitative, quantitative, mixed methods, or another.

It often makes sense to put the outline at the end of the introduction, but this rule is not set in stone.


This is because a narrower scope lets you clarify the problem and study it at greater depth, whereas very broad research questions only allow a superficial treatment. Can you generalise? Here you should not provide a list and descriptions of different types of design, but rather explain why the chosen one fits the best. The outline can also be used in supervision sessions, especially in the beginning.

During the work, you may have encountered new research questions and interesting literature which could have been followed up. What were your working conditions? Precisely how your analysis should appear, however, is a methodological question. How did you collect the data? Open this chapter by reminding the reader of the purpose of the study.